A multidisciplinary study on juvenile recidivism and multilevel impacts: risk factors, neighborhood features, and juvenile justice intervention
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This study incorporates the economic theories of crime, human capital investment, extended theory of subjective expected utility, as well as developmental criminological theories in a life-course perspective to develop a conceptual model to examine the influence of individual-level risk factors, neighborhood characteristics, and juvenile justice intervention on juvenile recidivism. Exploratory factor analysis and principle component analysis are applied to solve issues related to assessment and census data. Results from Poisson and Negative Binomial regression models indicate that the most consistent indicators for identifying potential chronic and serious offenders are being older, being male, having a more serious first offense, showing a tendency towards violence, scoring high on the overall factor that represents problematic attitude, behavior, and social relations, and the existence of harmful parental impact. As compared with juveniles located in neighborhoods with positive socio-economic characteristics, those from the most disadvantaged areas are found to recidivate more frequently and more seriously. Cognitive-behavioral and supervisory programs are shown to have great potential in reducing recidivism. However, only when juveniles successfully complete the assigned programs, are they involved in fewer subsequent delinquent behaviors.