Graphene Nanotechnology the Next Generation Logic, Memory and 3D Integrated Circuits
Floating gate transistor is the basic building block of non-volatile flash memory, which is one of the most widely used memory gadgets in modern micro and nano electronic applications. Recently there has been a surge of interest to introduce a new generation of memory devices using graphene nanotechnology. In this paper we present a new floating gate transistor (FGT) design based on multilayer graphene nanoribbon (MLGNR) and carbon nanotube (CNT). In the proposed graphene based floating gate transistor (GFGT) a multilayer structure of graphene nanoribbon (GNR) would be used as the channel of the field effect transistor (FET) and a layer of CNTs would be used as the floating gate. We have performed an analysis of the charge accumulation mechanism in the floating gate and its dependence on the applied terminal voltages. Based on our analysis we have observed that proposed graphene based floating gate transistor could be operated at a reduced voltage compared to conventional silicon based floating gate devices. We have presented detail analysis of the operation and the programming and erasing processes of the proposed FGT, dependency of the programming and erasing current density on different parameters, impact of scaling the thicknesses of the control and tunneling oxides. These analyses are done based on the equivalent capacitance model of the device. We have analyze the programming and erasing by the tunneling current mechanism in the proposed graphene-CNT floating gate transistor. In this paper, we have investigated the mechanism of programming current and the factors that would influence this current and the behavior of the proposed floating gate transistor. The analysis reveals that programming is a strong function of the high field induced by the control gate, and the thicknesses of the control oxide and the tunnel oxide. With the growing demand for nonvolatile flash memory devices and increasing limitations of silicon technologies, there has been a growing interest to develop emerging flash memory by using alternative nanotechnology. The proposed FGT device for nonvolatile flash memory contains an MLGNR channel and a CNT floating gate with SiO₂ as the tunnel oxide. In this paper, we have presented detail analysis of the electrical properties and performance characteristics of the proposed FGT device. We have focused on the following aspects: current voltage (I-V) characteristics, threshold voltage variation (∆VTH), programming, erasing and reading power consumptions compared to the existing FGTs, and layer-by-layer current voltage characteristics comparison of the proposed GFGT device. To realize graphene field effect transistor (GFET), a general model is developed, validated and analyzed. This model is also used to estimate graphene channel behavior of the proposed GFGT. Reliability is the major concern of the Flash memory technology. We have analyzed retention characteristics of the proposed GFGT. We also have developed a radiation harness test model for the Si-FGT by using VTH variation principle due to the radiation exposure. Flash memory experiences adverse effects due to radiation. These effects can be raised in terms of doping, feature size, supply voltages, layout, shielding. The operating point shift of the device forced to enter the logically-undefined region and cause upset and data errors under radiation exposure. In this research, the threshold voltage shift of the floating gate transistor (FGT) is analyzed by a mathematical model. Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) based field effect transistor is considered as one of the promising future logic devices. Many other nanoelectronic devices based on MoS2 are currently under investigation. However, the challenge of providing reliable and efficient contact between 2D materials like MoS2 and the metal is still unresolved. The contact resistance between metal and MoS2 limits the application of MoS2 in current semiconductor technologies. In this paper, a detail analysis of metal-MoS2 contact has been presented. Specific contributions of this work are:investigation of the physical, material and electrical parameters that would determine the contact properties, analysis of the combined impact of the top and back gates for the first time, modeling of the crucial metal-MoS2 contact parameters, such as, sheet resistance (RSh), contact resistivity (ρc), contact resistance (RC) and transfer length (LT), investigation of the ways to incorporate the developed contact model into the electronic design automation (EDA) tools and investigation of different contact materials for the metal-MoS2 contact. The three dimensional integrated circuit (3D- IC) is expected to extend Moore's law. To reduce interconnects and time delay, semiconductor industry is shifting 2D-IC to 2.5D-IC and 3D-IC. 3D-IC is the ultimate goal of the semiconductor industry, where 2.5D-IC is an intermediate state. It is important to realize CAD design challenges of the 2.5D-IC/3D-IC when minimum spacing interconnects are used. The major contributions of this research work are as follows. Previously, for the small scale experimental purpose, small numbers (10-20) of TSVs, interconnects, bumps are fabricated together by hand calculation. However in the real 3D-IC design, thousands of TSVs, interconnects, bumps are reuired. Therefore, an automated CAD solution is required to provide precise physical design and verification. Therefore, a solid CAD solution is provided here. Compatible with 40nm-technology design, which enables the Silicon Interposer to integrate with the digital, analog and RF dies together. Dimensions and spacing of the TSV and Bump are optimized by the 3D EM full wave field solver. To our best knowledge, at the interposer level, this design reports the most dense and well-defined RDL, TSV and micro-bump co-design on Silicon Interposer, which will be used for 2.5D-IC.
Table of Contents
Introduction and background -- Proposed Graphene Based Flash Memory -- Physical and Electrical Parameters of the Proposed Graphene Flash Memory Device -- Programming and Erasing Operation of the Proposed Graphene Flash Memory Device -- Reliability Analysis of the Proposed Graphene Flash Memory Device -- Radiation Hardness Analysis of the Floating Gate Transistor -- Benchmarking of the Proposed Graphene Flash Memory Device -- Graphene Field Effect Transistor (GFET) Generalized Model -- MoS2 FET Device and Contact Characterization and Modelling based on Modified Transfer Length Method (TLM) -- 2.5D Silicon Interposer Design in 40nm-Technology for 2D-IC and 3D-IC -- Conclusion and Future Work