Visualizing Opportunities and Inspiring Choices that Embody Success (V.O.I.C.E.S.)
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African-American girls experience disparate rates of pregnancy and acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), when compared to their non-Hispanic, white counterparts. Among African-American girls, current pregnancy rates are equal to the national crisis levels of teen pregnancy reported in 1990 (Guttmacher Institute, 2013; National Teen Pregnancy Prevention Campaign, 2015). This qualitative elicitation study was conducted to gain insight into the ways in which African-American mothers and their daughters between the ages of 9 and 14 communicate about sexual health. Early sexual health communication between mothers and daughters is known to enhance the sexual health outcomes of girls. A series of four focus groups and three in-depth interviews were conducted between July and September of 2014. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was the organizing framework. Theoretical constructs that guided this study were: attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms. Results showed that what African-American mothers share with their daughters about sexual health stems from the mother’s personal faith, values, and experiences. The information and way that mothers convey the importance of talking about these topics forms a daughter’s future subjective norms towards how they will view these topics in the future. Findings from this study can inform interventions to provide support for this understudied population. Moreover, there are implications for health care providers, particularly school nurses, who are in an ideal position to help mothers learn how to be confident so they can engage in sexual health conversations with their young daughters.
Table of Contents
Introduction -- Literature review -- Methods -- Results -- Discussion and implications -- Appendix A. IRB Consent Form -- Appendix B. Demographic Survey -- Appendix C. Permission to Use Parent-Child Sexual Risk Communication Subscale -- Appendix D. Adapted Screening Questions of Participants into V.O.I.C.E.S