Management of DBP formation using enhanced treatment technologies and an array of prediction tools
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Inefficient removal of total organic carbon (TOC) leads to the formation of carcinogenic disinfection by-products (DBPs) when a disinfectant is added. This study is performed in an effort to develop a simple, non-invasive and cost-effective technology that will effectively lower organic precursors by having water utilities reuse their treatment residual solids. Jar tests are used to simulate drinking water treatment processes with coagulants -- aluminum sulfate (alum), poly-aluminum chloride (PACl) and ferric chloride and their residual solids. Ten Coagulant-to-Residual (C/R) ratios are tested with water from the Missouri River and alluvial ground waters. This treatment results in heavier floc formation and leads to improved sedimentation of organics and additional removal of aluminum and iron. An average of 21Percent, 28 percent and 33 percent additional TOC removal can be achieved with C/R ratios less than 1 with alum, PACl and ferric chloride respectively. Data analysis proves that turbidity cannot solely be used as surrogate for TOC. Keywords: Treatment Residual solids, Coagulation, Flocculation, TOC Removal, Turbidity.