A geochemical look at obsidian procurement and exchange in the Medio period world: A case study 76 Draw (LA 156980)
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[ACCESS RESTRICTED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI AT AUTHOR'S REQUEST.] Geochemical provenance analysis of obsidian is a productive avenue for studying social interaction and lithic raw material procurement strategies in the U.S. Southwest. Here the results of the analysis of 180 obsidian artifacts recovered from 76 Draw, a Medio period (A.D.1200 to 1450) settlement in New Mexico are presented. My analysis of 33 artifacts was combined with data from previously sourced obsidian from the same site to reach the 180 artifact total. The combined assemblage reflects local geochemical sources, as well as obsidian from more distant geochemical sources often seen in assemblages associated with the Ancestral Pueblo (Anasazi), the Salado people, and the Casas Grandes phenomenon during the mid-1300s. Obsidian with cortex and in variable stages of reduction from the Casas Grandes region likely reflects direct procurement of Sierra Fresnal obsidian whereas the obsidian from the Salado and Ancestral Puebloan regions reflects the acquisition of previously reduced obsidian. Perhaps the worked obsidian came through trade or gifts/discard from visitors, from the bordering cultures. This assemblage was then compared to lithic assemblages from the nearby Black Mountain site in southern New Mexico and Casas Grandes settlements in the Medio period core around Paquime, Chihuahua, Mexico. Obsidian from sites in the Medio period core area geochemically matches sources in northern Chihuahua and northeastern Sonora, whereas the Black Mountain obsidian reflects greater reliance on the northern Mule Creek obsidian and other nearby sources. Significantly, while inhabitants at 76 Draw likely had access to Mule Creek obsidian and associated sources through contact with bordering cultures, they maintained an active partner in the Southern Network of procurement and exchange centered around obsidian sources from northern Chihuahua and the bootheel of New Mexico. This in turn suggests the cultural and economic integration of even distant Medio period settlements with Paquime.