The effect of high temperature steam on a nickel-chromium-iron alloy
"This paper describes the effect of high temperature steam attack (2200 degrees F) on a nickel chromium- iron alloy known as chromel-C. At the surface, high temperature steam attack results in the formation of a thin, hard film of chromium oxide which has special properties in the field of steam generation. Within the interior, high temperature steam attack leads to chemical reactions with metallic oxides, carbides, etc. These reactions can weaken and open grain boundaries, cause local melting and recrystallization, induce high thermal stress, generate gas at high pressure, and even extrude plastic interior metal through the surface crust. These phenomena become more and more critical as the operating temperature approaches the melting point." - from page 1.