Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening in African American Women After Multiple Interventions
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African American women are consistently diagnosed at later stages of breast and cervical cancer than Caucasian women, leading to increased morbidity and mortality rates. Although the mammogram and Papanikolaou (Pap) smear are the two most effective screening tests for these cancers, African American women have suboptimal rates of participation in these tests. The purpose of this doctor of nursing practice project was to determine if multi-component interventions increase breast and cervical cancer screening rates among African American women at a primary care clinic in an urban community. This quasi-experimental study included 15 African American women aged 40 and older at a primary care clinic in an urban community. The evidence based interventions included patient education, follow-up reminder phone calls, and informational patient handouts. The primary outcome for this project was the receipt of a screening mammogram and Pap smear. The secondary outcome for this project was change in patient intention to obtain breast and cervical cancer screening utilizing pre-and post questionnaires developed from the Theory of Planned Behavior. This project resulted in three women overdue for breast cancer screening obtaining recommended mammograms, and zero women overdue for cervical cancer screening obtaining a Pap smear. There was no significant change in intention to obtain breast and cervical cancer screening. The goal of this project was to increase participation in both breast and cervical cancer screening in African American women, ultimately leading to reduced morbidity and mortality.
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