Positron interactions with oriented polymers and with chiral quartz crystals
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Positron annihilation in various materials has been applied to characterize microstructure for decades. In this work, PALS was used to study material nanostructure, with a focus on the size and density of free volume and hole relaxation properties in polycarbonate (PC) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA); fundamental studies of polarized positron interaction with chiral crystals were also studied. Free volume relaxation in PC and PMMA with different levels of simple shear orientation was studied by PALS. Effects of applied pressure on the free volume recovery were evaluated. Combining the bulk- and pressure-dependent PALS analyses, the removal of applied pressure led to free-volume relaxation in all samples studied. The alignment of the polymer chains and free-volume holes imposes molecular restrictions on the molecular mobility of both PC and PMMA in their glassy states. Results indicated that the relaxation of the free volume holes at temperatures below glass transition is mostly reversible. Longitudinally polarized positron particles were used to reveal asymmetric interactions in chiral quartz crystals. Experimental results showed a significant intensity difference in free positronium annihilation for left handed (LH) and right handed (RH) chiral quartz crystals. Doppler broadening energy spectra (DBES) of z-cut LH or RH quartz disks at different angles were also measured by an “S parameter” to probe the observed difference. It was found that obtained annihilation energy difference of DBES was in agreement with the result of positron annihilation in bulk chiral crystals. PALS was used to compare different orientations and confirm asymmetric interactions in natural versus synthetic quartz LH and RH crystals in z and non-z orientations. Significant lifetime and intensity differences in free positronium annihilation for LH and RH quartz crystals were observed. The trend was found to be same in the related crystallographic orientations of the LH or RH crystals; the direction of incident positrons, z or non-z, did not affect the observed differences in lifetime and intensity trends. The results confirmed the existence of differential interactions of positronium with the asymmetric lattice structures of LH and RH quartz crystals.
Table of Contents
Introduction -- Experimental -- Study of amorphous polymers using PALS -- Positron interactions with chiral quartz -- Positron interactions with chiral quartz in non-z direction