Stadiums and sports entertainment districts on the landscape : an urban sports-anchored entertainment development model
With sports stadiums being built at an incredible rate, particularly since the 1990s, the need to examine how these facilities (and the development around them) impact cities is crucial to understanding changing urban landscapes. By creating a two-dimensional spatial model of all Major League Baseball stadiums and their surrounding entertainment districts built since 1992, I assess what components these ballparks share and what sort of development is common between them. Additionally, I apply this spatial model to two Major League Baseball stadium case studies, Petco Park in San Diego, and Busch Stadium III in St. Louis to determine the accuracy of the model. Finally, I investigate a third stadium, the English Premier League's (soccer) Tottenham Hotspurs still-in-construction stadium, to assess the international and multi-sport validity of my model. For each case study site, I sought common themes in their public promotion, including whether gentrification (or any of its various synonyms) was encouraged by their respective projects. This is done by reviewing government and planning documents related to development plans, media reports, and any historic or contemporary imagery publicly available. The purpose of this research is to create a model capable of explaining how new stadiums and sports-anchored entertainment districts are situated within urban landscapes and to address how gentrification plays a key role in shaping American and global cities.