Utilization of psyllium husk (plantago ovate) powder as a functional ingredient in a processed turkey product
The high demand for convenient and flavorful products has kept the processed meat industry thriving, but the shift for developing more functional products is on the rise. Meat has a high potential to be an excellent matrix for functional ingredients, but a large portion of the previous research involves using nonmeat ingredients as binders, fat replacers, or as a cost reduction. Currently, there is limited published research that tries to develop a functional meat product that contains dietary fiber. Therefore, the primary objective of this first study was to determine if 0, 0.6, 1.0, and 1.5% psyllium husk powder had an effect on the functional properties of a restructured ground turkey product. Results showed that as the fiber percentage increased the cooking yield, moisture content, and water holding capacity of the product also increased. The psyllium husk powder had minimal effects on the water activity value, but results did show a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in pH and binding strength as the fiber percentage increased. However, these differences may be statistically different but there is no basis to determine if they are different at a consumer level. Thus, it was determined that a subsequent study is required to upscale the product and fiber levels and to also include a consumer taste panel. The second phase of this study involved using the Genesis R&D Food Formulation and Labeling Software to model a ground turkey product that would contain either 0, 1, 2, or 3 g of dietary fiber per 55 g serving. From there, the psyllium husk powder (PHP) percentages (0, 1.6, 6.4, and 12.8%) were incorporated into a 24-pound meat block that would be subjected to functionality testing and sensory evaluation. The 6.4 and 12.8% PHP treatments resulted in the highest significant (P < 0.05) cook yield values, 90.0 and 90.6%, respectively. Additionally, the 1.6 and 6.4% PHP treatments observed the highest percentages for moisture, 70.1 and 69.4%, respectively. As the fiber percentage increased within the meat block, the parameters for texture profile analysis (hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and resilience) and water holding capacity also increased. Fortunately, there were no significant (P > 0.05) differences observed for pH and water activity. During the sensory evaluation there were two significant (P < 0.05) differences observed. As the percentage of fiber increased the consumers? "degree of liking" for flavor and appearance decreased. There was no significant (P > 0.05) difference calculated for texture. Overall, consumers were less willing (only 5%) to purchase the product that contained the 3 g of dietary fiber, but the 1.6% PHP or product with 1 g of dietary fiber was not statistically different from the control sample in all categories. So, in summary, it can be stated that using psyllium husk powder can benefit the functional properties of a processed turkey product and be used at levels adequate enough to produce a meat product that contains 1 g of dietary fiber.