Acculturation and Enculturation, Model Minority Stereotype, Distress, and Life Satisfaction in 1.5 Generation Asian Adolescents
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According to Bartley and Spoonley (2008), 1.5 generation Asian Americans are those who move to the U.S. between the ages of six and thirteen from their countries of origin. These individuals are members of a unique population in that they can adapt to American cultural norms faster than their adult counterparts and can experience the process of acculturation and enculturation differently (Kim et al., 2003). As these individuals immigrate to the United States, they could be perceived by their peers and teachers as the model minority, which involves assumptions such as Asian individuals are hardworking, well-behaved, and intellectual (Thompson & Kiang, 2010; Shen et al, 2011; Yoo & Miller, 2015). Additionally, the model minority label suggests that Asian Americans perceive themselves as experiencing fewer barriers and less racism compared to other racial groups (Kiang, Witkow, & Thompson, 2016; Yoo, Burrola, & Steger, 2010; Yoo et al., 2014). Over time, Asian Americans may internalize the model minority stereotype, which can have a unique impact on their functioning and well-being (Gupta et al., 2011).In this research, I looked more closely at the model minority stereotype in a sample of 1.5 generation Asian American college students between the ages of 18 to 25 by examining the relationships among acculturation/enculturation, endorsement of the model minority stereotype, distress (i.e., affective and somatic), and life satisfaction. Path analysis revealed that both acculturation and enculturation significantly predicted the achievement orientation dimension of the model minority stereotype in that as acculturation and enculturation increased, the level of achievement orientation decreased. Also, results indicated that color-blind racial attitudes were a significant moderator between perceptions of unrestricted mobility and affective distress. The most notable limitation of the study was inadequate power in that the minimum sample size was not attained.
Table of Contents
Introduction and review of the literature -- Method-- Discussion -- Appendix A. Demographics -- Appendix B. The Hopkins Symptom Checklist- 21 (HSCL-21) -- Appendix C. Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) -- Appendix D. Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale (CoBRAS) -- Appendix E. Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4) -- Appendix F. Modified Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans- Revised (ARSMAII)
Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy)