The effects of exercise on organizational and personal outcomes : a work-home resources perspective
In the organizational sciences, daily exercise research has largely centered on how exercise replenishes resources depleted by work and thus facilitates recovery during off-work time. However, we know little about whether exercise generates resources that influence individuals at work and subsequently at home, and under what conditions. I theorized that daily exercise results in resource accumulation that leads to more organizational citizenship behaviors, higher job satisfaction, and better job performance. Subsequently, I theorized better work outcomes are associated with a sense of accomplishment that leads to more sharing behaviors at home. I also theorized that the resource accumulation from exercise may depend on contextual characteristics of the exercise (i.e., time of day and accompanied) and individual differences (i.e., autonomous motivation and physical fitness). To test the theorized model, 102 respondents from two different organizations answered three surveys a day for 10 work days. Multi-level modeling was used to test the hypotheses. Results indicated that exercise was associated with greater OCBs, job satisfaction, and job performance via the resources of positive affect, mental focus, and energy. However, the gain in positive affect was strongest for employees who were less fit. OCBs, job satisfaction, and job performance were associated with feelings of accomplishment. The findings illustrate the importance of daily exercise for generating resources useful for outcomes at work. I hope to offer insight into the importance of an expanded view of the role of daily exercise for employees.
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