Motivation for smoking and smoking cessation : a self-determination theory investigation
[ACCESS RESTRICTED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI AT REQUEST OF AUTHOR.] Nicotine dependence is conceptualized as a disorder of motivation. Initial drug use is goal-directed, but with the development of dependence it becomes increasingly routinized and automatic. Ample knowledge has accumulated regarding the motivational processes underlying routinized, dependent use; however, there is substantially less known about how instrumental responding to natural rewards functions (or fails to function) in the context of dependence (Anselme, 2009). An alteration in motivation for natural rewards has been implicated as one of the primary consequences of dependence in major theories of addiction (e.g. Koob & Le Moal, 1997; Robinson & Berridge, 2000), thus, understanding more about this process may provide important insights into dependence. It appears progress in this area has been slowed by a paucity of appropriate theoretical and methodological tools for research (Stickland & Smith, 2014; 2015). The current investigation endeavors to remedy some of these methodological barriers by utilizing an empirical social psychological theory, Self-determination Theory, to generate assessment tools that can be used to examine how psychosocial reward reinforces smoking and cessation behavior within nicotine dependence. Specifically, it aims to create two motives measures for smoking and quitting based on Self-determination Theory that can be used in conjunction with existing measures to examine two components of the reinforcement process (motives and nutriments, i.e. appetitive and consummatory). The result of these efforts was the creation of the Needs-based Smoking Motives Questionnaire (N-SMoQ) and the Needs-based Quit Motives Inventory (N-QuIt), and the collection of evidence that provides initial insights into how dependence interferes with motivation for natural psychosocial rewards.
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