A qualitative case study deconstructing teachers' decisions in the pre-active stage of teaching to illuminate considerations made for teaching 21st-century skills and knowledge
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The purpose of this heuristic case study was to develop a deeper understanding of how middle-level teachers in one Midwestern middle school account for teaching 21st-century skills and knowledge, within the context of a standardized curriculum. This study seeks to obtain descriptive information for how teachers account for 21st-century skills and knowledge in their instruction while in the pre-active stage of teaching. The central question was: What intentional considerations do teachers make in the pre-active stage of teaching for meeting the needs of diverse learners? Data collection included classroom observations, lesson reflection journals, individual teacher interviews, and a focus group interview. Through the process of within-case and cross-case analysis, aided by the use of a qualitative data software, NVivo 12 Qualitative Data Analysis, themes identified in the data were: Pre-Active Stage Inputs, 21st-century Framework Comprehension, Barriers to Implementation, and Fidelity to Curriculum. The findings supported much of the reviewed literature related to teacher decision making and inputs with regard to instruction. However, the study revealed that deficit thinking and the pressures of standardization and curricular accountability had a more detrimental impact on teachers’ ability and willingness to implement 21st-century skills and knowledge into lessons, especially when the curriculum did not intentionally include 21st century skills and themes. These findings may guide instructional leaders as well as classroom practitioners toward a more rigorous and comprehensive 21st-century aligned pedagogy.
Table of Contents
Introduction -- Review of literature -- Summary of findings -- Implications of findings -- Appendix A. Observation protocol -- Appendix B. Lesson plan reflection form -- Appendix C. Consent for participation in research study -- Appendix D. Interview protocol -- Appendix E. Group interview protocol
Ed.D. (Doctor of Education)