What is the best way to measure ejection fraction?
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Contrast angiography is considered the gold standard for measurement of ejection fraction. However, this technique is invasive and can have variability in measurement and increased risk for the patient. Among noninvasive techniques, 2-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) with contrast is preferred, having the best balance of availability, reliability, ease of study completion, risks to patient, and cost. (SOR C, based on expert opinion.)
Evidence Based Practice 11(6): 07.