Docosahexaenoic acid and lipid peroxidation products : insights from studies with microglial cells and mouse brain
[ACCESS RESTRICTED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI AT AUTHOR'S REQUEST.] Oxidative stress is known to play an important role in neurodegenerative diseases. Microglia are the primary innate immune cells in the central nervous system. Using BV-2 microglial cells, we first tested the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and its peroxidation products on LPS-stimulated inflammatory responses involving the NF-_B pathway, as well as its ability to upregulate the Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 antioxidant response pathway. Results indicated the ability for DHA and 4-HHE to suppress LPS-induced NO, ROS and p-cPLA2, and the responses for 4-HHE were 10-fold more sensitive as compared to DHA. The neuroprotective effects of DHA are enhanced with botanical polyphenols. Low concentrations of quercetin and DHA can more effectively enhance the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1, and suppress LPS-induced NO, p-cPLA2, and ROS, as compared to DHA or quercetin alone.
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