Vacancy trapping and annealing in noble-metal films grown at low temperature
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We have used synchrotron x-ray diffraction to study the homoepitaxial growth on Cu(001), Ag(001), and Ag(111), at temperatures between 300 and 65 K. The growth on all of these surfaces exhibits a consistent trend towards a large compressive strain that is attributed to the incorporation of vacancies into the growing film below 160 K. In each case, the vacancy concentration is ∼ 2% at 110 K and we have measured the temperature dependence for incorporation on the (001) surfaces as well as the annealing behavior for Cu(001). These results, which suggest new kinetic mechanisms, have important implications for understanding epitaxial crystal growth.
Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4718 (2002)