Prediction of knee loading in native knee and total knee arthroplasty : a forward dynamics computational study
"The goal of this dissertation is to develop a musculoskeletal model and corroborate model predictions to experimentally measured in vivo knee contact forces, in order to study the biomechanical consequences of two different total knee arthroplasty designs. The two main contributions of this dissertation are: (1) Corroboration to experimental data: The development of an EMG-driven, full-body, musculoskeletal model with subject-specific leg geometries including deformable contacts, ligaments, 6DOF knee joint, and a shoe-floor model that can concurrently predict muscle forces, ligament forces, and joint contact forces. Model predictions of tibiofemoral joint contact forces were evaluated against the subject-specific in vivo measurements from the instrumented TKR for three distinctly different styles of over ground gait. (2) Virtual surgery in TKA: The musculoskeletal modeling methodology was then used to develop a model for one healthy participant with a native knee and then virtually replacing the native knee with fixed-bearing and mobile-bearing total knee arthroplasty designs performing gait and step-up tasks. This approach minimized the biomechanical impact of variations in sex, geometry, implant size, design and positioning, ligament location and tension, and muscle forces found across patients. The differences in biomechanics were compared for the two designs. 1.2 Significance of this Research The world health organization ranks musculoskeletal disorders as the second largest contributor to disability worldwide. Conservative estimates put the national cost of direct care for musculoskeletal disease at $212.7 billion a year . Many people who suffer from neuromuscular or musculoskeletal diseases may benefit from the insights gained from surgery simulations, since musculoskeletal reconstructions are commonly performed on these individuals. Improved surgical outcomes will benefit these individuals not only in the short-term, but also in the long-term, since their future rehabilitation needs may be reduced. For example, although total knee arthroplasty is a common surgical procedure for the treatment of osteoarthritis with over 700,000 procedures performed each year , many patients are unhappy with the ultimate results . Ten to 30% of patients report  pain, dissatisfaction with function, and the need for further surgery such as revision after the initial surgery resulting in costs exceeding $11 billion . Potentially, simulation studies that quantify the important biomechanical variables will reduce the need for revision surgeries in patients."--Introduction.
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