Outcome and complications in goats treated by perineal urethrostomy for obstructive urolithiasis: 25 cases (2010-2017)
Background: Obstructive urolithiasis commonly affects male goats. Perineal urethrostomy (PU) can be a permanent treatment option but is generally considered undesirable because of the risk of stricture of the urethral stoma. Limited information exists regarding long-term outcome and complications in goats undergoing PU for treatment of obstructive urolithiasis. Objectives: To determine short-term and long-term outcome and complications in goats undergoing PU for treatment of obstructive urolithiasis. Animals: Twenty-five client-owned goats. Methods: Multi-institutional retrospective case series. Results: Of the 25 goats, 13 (52 percent) were alive at the time of follow-up. Mean time from surgery to follow-up was 34 months (range, 4-65). Nine goats (36 percent) died between discharge and follow-up with a mean survival time of 46 days (range, 5-120). Cause of death in 7 of 9 (78 percent) goats was related to urolithiasis. Goats treated by use of a modified proximal perineal urethrostomy (MPPU) were significantly more likely to survive at least 150 days postoperatively (P <.01). The most common postoperative complications were hemorrhage (10/25 [40 percent]) and surgical site infection (3/25 [12 percent]). Hemorrhage was significantly associated with MPPU (P <.0001). Stricture of the surgical stoma occurred in 7 of 22 (32 percent) discharged goats. Mean time to stricture was 65 days (range, 10-240). Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Perineal urethrostomy can provide effective long-term resolution of obstructive urolithiasis in goats. Re-obstruction or stricture seems most likely within the 1st 2 months after surgery. MPPU may provide better long-term results but should be approached cautiously because it can be associated with life-threatening hemorrhage.