Asymmetry of above-threshold ionization of metal clusters in two-color laser fields: A time-dependent density-functional study
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Above threshold ionization (ATI) spectra of small metal clusters (e.g., Na4 and Na4+) are calculated numerically using a spherical jellium model and time-dependent density functional theory for two-color (1064 and 532 nm) ultrashort (25 fs) laser pulses as a function of phase difference between the two fields. ATI spectra and ionized electron fluxes are obtained in the two opposite directions of the linearly polarized laser fields. The asymmetry, defined as the difference in electron yield, is shown to depend strongly on the carrier-envelope phase of the second-harmonic (2ω) field. The ATI spectra allow one to identify the range of kinetic energies of the ionized electrons where the asymmetry mainly occurs. Comparisons are made between calculations with and without self-interaction correction and also with previous exact numerical solutions of the one-electron systems H and H2+ [A. D. Bandrauk and S. Chelkowski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3562 (2000)] where such asymmetry effects had first been observed. We find that ATI spectra in the clusters generally have much longer energy plateaus than in previously studied one-electron systems, with cutoffs up to 30-40 times the ponderomotive energy Up. In high-harmonic generation spectra, on the other hand, no extended plateaus are observed.
Phys. Rev. A 69, 063415 (2004)