Quantum Theory of Orbital Magnetization and Its Generalization to Interacting Systems
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Based on standard perturbation theory, we present a full quantum derivation of the formula for the orbital magnetization in periodic systems. The derivation is generally valid for insulators with or without a Chern number, for metals at zero or finite temperatures, and at weak as well as strong magnetic fields. The formula is shown to be valid in the presence of electron-electron interaction, provided the one-electron energies and wave functions are calculated self-consistently within the framework of the exact current and spin- density functional theory.
Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 197202 (2007) [4 pages]