What are the causes of systolic murmurs in young children?
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Innocent or functional murmurs are the most common, present at some point in 50% to 90% of children, typically between 2 and 7 years of age. (SOR B, based on a cohort study.) Systolic murmurs due to systemic diseases or infections are the next most common, with anemia being the most frequent cause. (SOR C, based on a narrative review.) Congenital heart disease is the least common cause of a systolic murmur, occurring in less than 1% of the general population. (SOR B, based on a systematic review of cohort studies.)
Evidence Based Practice 13(1): 11-12.