What is the best nonpharmacologic therapy for phantom limb pain?
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Nonpharmacologic therapies for phantom limb pain (PLP) that have demonstrated some success include motor imagery therapy (SOR C, extrapolated from a randomized controlled trial [RCT] that enrolled a heterogeneous patient sample); Farabloc® (SOR C, based on a single low-quality RCT); and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in patients who also have depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (SOR C, based on a case series). Evidence is insufficient to support or refute the use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), desensitization, scar mobilization, relaxation, or biofeedback.
Evidence Based Practice 13(1): 07.