A numerical simulation of a single shock-accelerated particle
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[ACCESS RESTRICTED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI AT REQUEST OF AUTHOR.] Particle drag models, which capture macro viscous and pressure effects, have been developed over the years for various flow regimes to enable cost effective simulations of particle-laden flows. The relatively recent derivation by Maxey and Riley has provided an exact equation of motion for spherical particles in a flow field based on the continuum assumption. Many models that have been simplified from these equations have provided reasonable approximations; however, the sensitivity of particle-laden flows to particle drag requires a very accurate model to simulate. To develop such a model, a 2D axisymmetric Navier-Stokes direct numerical simulation of a single particle in a transient, shock-driven flow field was conducted using the hydrocode FLAG. FLAG's capability to run arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian hydrodynamics coupled with solid mechanic models makes it an ideal code to capture the physics of the flow field around and in the particle as it is shock-accelerated -- a challenging regime to study. The goal of this work is twofold: to provide a validation for FLAG's Navier-Stokes and heat diffusion solutions, and to provide a rationale for recent experimental particle drag measurements. It was found that the particle temperature and kinematic results closely line up with those predicted by well-established heat transfer and drag models, validating the numerical solutions. The rational for the measurements, with this validation in mind, is that there is an experimental bias towards introducing smaller particles than expected.
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