The development and validation of the appearance satisfaction questionnaire - the first culturally appropriate measure for body image in black women
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Current theories in body image postulate that body dissatisfaction predicts eating disorder pathology. Previous research in body image with Black women claims that Black women do not experience body dissatisfaction and suggests that being Black may act as a protective factor against body image concerns. Alternatively, eating disorder research suggests that Black women engage in disordered eating behavior at similar, if not higher rates, when compared to White women. This discrepancy in findings may be due to the currently narrow understanding of body dissatisfaction. Research in body image and Black women suggest that Black women experience pressure to adhere to a body type not currently captured in body image measures. Specifically, they experience pressure to have a slim thick body (i.e., small waist, larger buttocks) with a lighter skin tone and straighter hair. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a body image measure (the Appearance Satisfaction Questionnaire; ASQ) created to assess body image concerns specific to Black women. Further, it aimed to assess additional maladaptive behaviors and effects of poor body image in Black women (i.e., sexual risk taking behavior and acculturative stress). A total of 189 Black women were recruited through the university and snowball sampling. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted and three factors were identified (Slim Thick, Personal Beliefs, and Societal Beliefs). The ASQ total and subscales demonstrated good internal consistency. Pearson product correlations demonstrated positive correlations with current body image measures and measures of disordered eating. The ASQ also demonstrated positive correlations with acculturative stress, but not sexual risk taking behaviors.
Table of Contents
Introduction -- Review of literature -- Methods -- Results -- Appendix A. Demographics -- Appendix B. Appearance satisfaction assessment -- Appendix C. Skin color questionnaire -- Appendix D. Sociocultural attitudes towards appearance questionnaire-4 -- Appendix E. Body shape questionnaire -- Appendix F. Eating disorder examination- questionnaire -- Appendix G. Binge eating scale -- Appendix H. Objectified body consciousness scale -- Appendix I. Risk behaviors -- Appendix J. Makeup questionnaire -- Appendix K. Sexualized clothing questionnaire -- Appendix L. S.A.F.E acculturation stress scale
M.A. (Master of Arts)