Is modafinil safe and effective for improving mental performance after sleep deprivation?
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Modafinil improves psychomotor vigilance better than placebo, with comparable efficacy to caffeine or dextroamphetamine. Modafinil appears superior to caffeine, dextroamphetamine, and placebo at decreasing perseverative responses and errors, but less effective than caffeine in tests that measure planning, strategy, and sequencing. Modafinil has minimal adverse reactions, but its 12-hour half-life may impair sleep in some situations. (SOR B, based on RCTs.)
Evidence Based Practice 13(7): 14.