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dc.contributor.advisorStanis, Sonja Wilhelmeng
dc.contributor.advisorSimonsen, Joneng
dc.contributor.authorWentz, Jennifer Raeeng
dc.date.issued2020eng
dc.date.submitted2020 Summereng
dc.description.abstract[ACCESS RESTRICTED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI AT REQUEST OF AUTHOR.] Regular physical activity (PA) is one of most important things a person can do for their health. However, the majority of adults do not participation in regularly PA. Therefore, there is a need to better understand ways to influence adult's PA levels. This study integrated two theories, social cognitive theory and social comparison theory to understand how the composition of intervention comparison groups impact social cognitive variables and daily PA steps. The purpose of this study is to understand how the composition of intervention comparison groups and step level groups related to social cognitive variables may impact daily steps. The research objectives are to: (1) examine differences in the change in steps across social cognitive factors (i.e., social comparison, self-regulation, social support, self-efficacy) over time (baseline, midpoint and completion); (2) examine differences in social cognitive factors (social comparison, self-regulation, social support, and self-efficacy), across intervention comparison groups and step level groups over time (baseline, midpoint, and completion); (3) examine differences in the change in steps across intervention comparison groups and step level groups over time (baseline, midpoint, and completion); and (4) examine differences in the change in steps across intervention comparison groups and step level groups over time (baseline, midpoint, and completion) with a subsample of only those engaging in a group challenge. A six-week group-based Fitbit intervention was conducted with University of Missouri employee participants using the Fitbit Zip, and the Fitbit Flex2. At the start of the study, a twelve-day baseline period was used to form six intervention groups: similar low, similar medium, similar high, low/high, diverse mix, and nonsocial. Once groups were formed, a six-week intervention was conducted in which progressive step goals was given weekly, along with weekly step leaderboard (comparison) information. All groups received weekly step goals, while only the five intervention comparison groups received weekly step leaderboard information and were able to participate in group step challenges. Outcomes measured included change in steps and social cognitive factors. Step data was collected weekly, social cognitive variables (i.e., social comparison, self regulation, social support, self-efficacy) were collected at baseline (twelve days), midpoint and at the completion via on online questionnaire. Results from the study show higher perceived social support is associated with greater change in steps, although no relationship was found between any social cognitive variables over time. Although several significant relationships emerged with social cognitive variables, many of the relationships examined were not significant. These findings reinforce the importance of incorporating strategies to ensure participant engagement with the social comparison components of any future intervention or physical activity programming. In addition, while no relationship was found between step level groups and intervention comparison groups with the entire sample, when examining the same analysis with a subgroup of participants who participated in group step challenges, differences among intervention comparison groups did emerge, suggesting that when engaging in social comparison it has an impact on PA. Finally, time emerged as a significant factor in most models, with the midpoint time showing greater change in step than the completion period, suggesting something more is needed to maintain PA gains such as a continued effort to motivate and engage participants. This study advances recreation and physical activity literature through exploring the impact of the types of social comparison groups as well as their standing in their groups on social cognitive attributes and steps. Consequently, this study provides useful information about the impact of the design of gamification in PA programming and interventions.eng
dc.description.bibrefIncludes bibliographical references.eng
dc.format.extent1 online resource (x, 151 pages) : illustrationseng
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/10355/79475
dc.identifier.urihttps://doi.org/10.32469/10355/79475eng
dc.languageEnglisheng
dc.publisherUniversity of Missouri--Columbiaeng
dc.relation.ispartofcommunityUniversity of Missouri--Columbia. Graduate School. Theses and Dissertationseng
dc.rightsAccess is limited to the campuses of the University of Missourieng
dc.subject.otherEducationeng
dc.subject.otherPsychologyeng
dc.titlePhysical activity and social comparison : effects of a group-based Fitbit interventioneng
dc.typeThesiseng
thesis.degree.disciplineAgricultural education (MU)eng
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Missouri--Columbiaeng
thesis.degree.levelDoctoraleng
thesis.degree.namePh. D.eng


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