What's the best way to manage upper extremity venous thrombosis?
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Standard management is best: Start with unfractionated heparin or low-molecular-weight heparin and follow with long-term therapy with a vitamin K antagonist (strength of recommendation [SOR]: C, expert consensus and case reports). Some evidence supports thrombolytic therapy, placement of a superior vena cava filter, or surgical thrombectomy in selected patients (SOR: C, expert consensus and case reports). Whether to remove venous catheters during initial treatment for catheter-induced venous thrombosis remains unclear, because limited studies address this issue specifically (SOR: C, expert consensus and case reports).
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