Role of the triplet state in the green emission peak of polyfluorene films: A time evolution study
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The blue emission of ethyl-hexyl substituted polyfluorene (PF2/6) films is accompanied by a low energy green emission peak around 500 nm in inert atmosphere. The intensity of this 500 nm peak is large in electroluminescence (EL) compared to photoluminescence (PL) measurements. Furthermore, the green emission intensity reduces dramatically in the presence of molecular oxygen. To understand this, we have modeled various nonradiative processes by time dependent quantum many body methods. These are (i) intersystem crossing to study conversion of excited singlets to triplets leading to a phosphorescence emission, (ii) electron-hole recombination (e-hR) process in the presence of a paramagnetic impurity to follow the yield of triplets in a polyene system doped with paramagnetic metal atom, and (iii) quenching of excited triplet states in the presence of oxygen molecules to understand the low intensity of EL emission in ambient atmosphere, when compared with that in nitrogen atmosphere. We have employed the Pariser-Parr-Pople Hamiltonian to model the molecules and have invoked electron-electron repulsions beyond zero differential approximation while treating interactions between the organic molecule and the rest of the system. Our time evolution methods show that there is a large cross section for triplet formation in the e-hR process in the presence of paramagnetic impurity with degenerate orbitals. The triplet yield through e-hR process far exceeds that in the intersystem crossing pathway, clearly pointing to the large intensity of the 500 nm peak in EL compared to PL measurements. We have also modeled the triplet quenching process by a paramagnetic oxygen molecule which shows a sizable quenching cross section especially for systems with large sizes. These studies show that the most probable origin of the experimentally observed low energy EL emission is the triplets.
J. Chem. Phys. 132, 044104 (2010)