Simulation, reflection, and feedback in medical education
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The purpose of this study was to examine differences between residents' perceptions of their learning after participation in a simulation, and residents' perceptions of their learning after participation in a simulation followed by a reflection and feedback session. Twelve first-year surgical residents participated in this study, and they were randomly assigned to one of three groups (named A, B, and C) with four participants in each group. Participants in groups A and C participated in a simulation followed by a reflection and feedback session, and participants in group B participated in a simulation only. The survey was administered prior to their participation in the simulation. A direct observation was conducted at each group's activities and discussions during the simulation sessions, and reflection and feedback sessions (for the applicable groups). Then, individual interview was conducted to each of participants after simulation session (for group B), and simulation followed by reflection and feedback session (for groups A and C) have completed. Results of this study indicated that the residents in groups A, B, and C were able to articulate areas of perceived learning. They were able to identify the problems of complexity, distractions, and teamwork; the residents in groups A and C were able to identify solutions for the problems based on the feedback they received during the reflection and feedback session. The identification of the problems were area of perceived learning for residents in all three groups, but the solutions provided as feedback during the reflection and feedback session is an additional area of perceived learning for residents in groups A and C.