Recreational multifunctionality and its implications for agroforestry
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Multifunctionality occurs when farms provide different services along with food production including recreation and agroforestry. Multifunctional farms simultaneously offer several services suggesting synergies among them that are not yet understood. This study aims to fill this gap, examining the relationships between recreational multifunctionality and agroforestry. In 2006, 353 randomly selected landowners from four Missouri counties were interviewed about their farm characteristics, recreational services and agroforestry perceptions. Statistical tests include cluster analysis followed by ANOVA and chi-square tests. Responding landowners are preponderantly middle age and male. The majority provide at least one recreational service and on average more than four. The most frequently provided services are hunting, gathering wild edibles and nature contemplation, showing a blend of consumptive/ extractive and non-consumptive recreational uses. Cluster analysis performed over the recreational services revealed two groups of recreational multifunctionals: Farming Lifestyle Landowners - FLL (n=122) and Rural Lifestyle Landowners - RLL (n=199). Both types of recreational multifunctionals differ in their engagement in agricultural production, types and amount of recreational services provided, socio-demographic and farming attributes. Overall, FLL are not as multifunctional and their farm has a production function. RLL are highly multifunctional and mainly non-farmers who appear to own a farm for non-extractive values. Clusters also differ in their understanding of agroforestry. RLL are more knowledgeable and interested in most agroforestry practices than FLL. Differences between groups on their awareness and perceptions of agroforestry suggest that different strategies should be applied to inform them about the values of agroforestry.