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dc.contributor.authorAnderson, Stephen H.eng
dc.contributor.authorGantzer, Clark J.eng
dc.contributor.authorBlanco-Canqui, Humbertoeng
dc.contributor.authorJallow, Najilaeng
dc.date.issued1996eng
dc.descriptionStudents supported: 2 Student Assistantseng
dc.description.abstractNo-tillage systems have been found to increase water runoff for some soils. This is a major concern because this increased runoff has the potential for increasing the runoff of dissolved herbicides in the spring since these chemicals are not incorporated into the soil with no-tillage systems. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of seven longterm crop and tillage systems on runoff and saturated hydraulic conductivity. The study was conducted near Kingdom City, Missouri on a Mexico silt loam (fine, montmorillonitic, mesic Udollic Ochraqualf). Runoff records from 1983 through 1993 were collected. The seven treatments consisted of no-tillage (NT), moldboard plow (MP), and chisel plow (CP) continuous corn (Zea mays L.) and continuous soybean (Glycine max L.) and fallow (F). Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat), bulk density, organic matter, and water content were determined on soil cores removed from two interrow positions (trafficked and non-trafficked) and two soil depths (0 - 125 mm, 125 - 150 mm). Tillage had a small but significant effect on runoff, Ksat, bulk density, water content at sampling, and organic matter. The Fallow treatment produced the lowest values of Ksat (0.2 mm/h), bulk density (1.3 g cm^-3), and organic matter content (0.9 percent) for the surface 125 mm, as compared to the NT, MB and CP treatments. No differences in Ksat were found (p=0.587) among NT, MP and CP tillage treatments. Complex interaction effects of tillage vs. wheel traffic (p=0.039) and tillage vs. depth (p=0.003) suggested that tillage effects on Ksat vary with interrow position and soil depth. The NT (0.301 mm mm^-3) had significantly higher field volumetric water content than MP (0.285 mm mm^-3) and CP (0.282 mm mm^-3), when averaged across crops. Plots planted to corn had greater water content (0.297 mm mm^-3) compared to soybean plots (0.281 mm mm^-3). Runoff under F was the highest in each year from 1983 to 1993. The greatest amount of runoff occurred during Period 4 (harvest to planting). Runoff was lowest during Period 1 and 2. No-tillage had significantly higher runoff than MP and CP treatments during Period 4, spring (p=0.006); Period 4, fall (p=0.011 ); Fallow period (p=0.005); and Period 1 and 2 (p=0.021). Cumulative runoff with NT was significantly (p=0.001) higher compared to MP and CP, except from 1991 to 1993 in which differences were not significant (p=0.374). Corn produced lower runoff rates than soybean at the 0.05 level in Period 4, fall. Increased runoff in NT was attributed to higher water content and subsequently lower infiltration for this soil which had a nearly impermeable subsurface argillic horizon.eng
dc.description.sponsorshipProject # G-2029-02 Agreement # 14-08-0001-G-2029-02eng
dc.identifier.otherG-2029-02eng
dc.identifier.other14-08-0001-G-2029-02eng
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/10355/91919
dc.languageEnglisheng
dc.relation.ispartofseries14-08-0001-G-2029-02
dc.subjectFocus Categories: 1996 Key Words: Runoffeng
dc.subjectInterfloweng
dc.subjectChemical Transporteng
dc.subjectClaypan Soilseng
dc.titleRole of runoff and interflow in chemical transport for claypan soilseng
dc.typeTechnical Reporteng


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