In-hospital mortality rate and predictors of 30-day readmission in patients with iron deficiency anemia and diastolic heart failure: A cross-sectional study
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Introduction: There is currently strong evidence of the adverse effects of anemia on the prognosis of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Unfortunately, the data on the effects of anemia on a large sample of patients with diastolic heart failure (DHF) is lacking. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of iron deficiency anemia on DHF readmission rates and its corresponding causes and burdens on the healthcare system. Methods: We utilized 2018 Nationwide readmission data and included patients aged ≥18 years with ICD-10 CM code indicating acute or acute chronic diastolic heart failure and iron deficiency anemia was included in the study. The primary outcome is 30-day readmission rates. Secondary outcomes were mortality rates, common causes of readmission, and healthcare utilization. Independent predictors for readmission were identified using cox regression analysis. Results: The total number of admissions in our study was 795,777. The mean age was 74.4 years (SD=13.7), and 63.54% were females. The 30-day readmission rate in patients with diastolic heart failure and iron deficiency anemia was 18.32 % vs. 16.01% in patients without anemia. The mortality rate at index admission and readmission was 3.62 % (2601) and 5.82 % (737), respectively. The most common cause of readmission was hypertensive heart and kidney disease with heart failure (17.74%). The independent predictors of readmission were age [less than] 85 years, household income [less than] 59000$/per year, Medicare and Medicaid insurance, higher Elixhauser comorbidities score, longer Length of stay during the index admission, discharge to a nursing home, hospital located in a large metropolitan area. The financial burden on healthcare for all the readmission was $837 million for 2018. Conclusion: The 30-day readmission rate in patients with diastolic heart failure and iron deficiency anemia is 18.32% in the year 2018. The mortality rate increased from 3.62 % to 5.82 % with readmission. The financial burden for readmission during that year was $837 million. Future studies are warranted to treat iron deficiency anemia to prevent readmissions in diastolic heart failure.
Am j Hosp Med 2022 July;6(3): 2022.
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