Activity involvement and place attachment of fish giggers in the Missouri Ozarks
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Despite being an integral part of Ozark culture for nearly 200 years, little is known about fish gigging and those who participate in this activity. A mail-back survey was administered to 1,011 licensed Missouri anglers who lived in one of seven zip codes adjacent to the Current and Jacks Fork Rivers. These rivers comprise the Ozark National Scenic Riverways (ONSR) and also represent prime locations for this fishing activity. The questionnaire measured demographics, activity style/preference, activity involvement (AI), place attachment (PA), and favorite fishing locations. A total of 404 fish giggers completed the survey, resulting in a 39.7% response rate. The purposes of this study were to obtain baseline information about fish giggers in the Missouri Ozarks, evaluate the efficacy of competing AI and PA scales, and interpret giggers' AI and PA scores in light of activity style/preference groupings. Interpretation of confirmatory factor analysis fit statistics suggested that further evaluation and refinement of the AI and PA scales is needed. Descriptive statistics and hypotheses tests both supported and contradicted previous research, suggesting that fish giggers are a unique segment of the angling population in Missouri. The nature of responses emphasized the importance of fish gigging and the ONSR to support meaningful social relationships. Furthermore, these findings lend support for using market segmentation techniques to evaluate recreational anglers. Managerial implications are discussed for state and federal resource management agencies.