Experiences of racialized classism among first-generation and economically-marginalized U.S. college students of color : a critical thematic analysis
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Histories of racism, colonialism, and racially-discriminatory immigration laws and policies in the U.S. have resulted in persistent cultural stereotypes and ideologies that associate Black, Latinx, Indigenous, and many multiracial people with "lower"-class status. These forces contribute to their regular exposure to racialized forms of classism. This study investigates how classism is experienced as racialized among first-generation and economically-marginalized (FGEM) university students from these groups and their visions for social change in the U.S. It addresses calls in the psychological literature to deepen investigations of oppression occurring at the raceclass nexus. It finds that racialized classism manifests across ecological levels and presents in interpersonal, institutional, cultural-subjective, and structural-systemic forms. It specifically finds that race/class stereotyping, colorism, intraracial and interracial interpersonal discrimination, pressure toward "keeping up appearances" that fosters chronic stress and overwork, and features of the built and social environment shaped by practices of poverty governance are prominent features of experiences of racialized classism among these groups. The findings offer evidence of both the partial utility of existing single-axis models of classism and the enhanced psychopolitical validity and utility of models of racialized classism. The study proposes practice and advocacy measures for psychologists in response to and in support of participants' visions for social change.