Endurance or sprint interval exercise, & metformin treatment differently modify insulin-induced vasodilation in skeletal muscle arterioles of obese insulin resistant rats
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A key contributor to insulin-mediated glucose uptake is insulin-induced vasodilation of skeletal muscle arterioles, which is impared with obesity and Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Abnormalities in the vascular reactivity to insulin can limit perfusion, and delivery of glucose and insulin to muscle tissue. In human patients with T2D, exercise improves insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake T2D. Furthermore, we have previously shown that daily exercise prevents impairments in insulin-induced vasodilation in OLETF rats. However, the efficacy of exercise interventions which utilize different muscle recruitment patterns (i.e. aerobic vs. sprint training) to ameliorate or reverse impairments in microvascular insulin reactivity has not been elucidated. The current ADA standard of care for T2D is treatment with metformin in combination with a diet and exercise program. Therefore, we studied the effects of endurance exercise and interval sprint training with and without metformin on the vasoreactivity to insulin in skeletal muscle arterioles from red and white muscles.