Evidence for Deuteron Stripping in Metals That Absorb Hydrogen
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Evidence from research papers supporting the hypothesis that the exothermic nuclear reactions providing the observed episodes of excess heat in deuterated palladium (Pd) and titanium (Ti) are Oppenheimer-Phillips (OP) reactions between deuterons and nuclei of the host metal, Pd or Ti and their significant impurities. Details of the supporting evidence hinge upon neutron activation analysis (NAA) of metal samples before and after production of excess heat episodes plus observation of gamma ray emissions from plausible products of the OP reactions. One example of an OP reaction in palladium is Pd108 + d →Pd109 + p, where d and p represent the deuteron and proton respectively. Thus the neutron half of the deuteron has been “stripped away” from its associated proton, leading to the reaction being named the “deuteron stripping” reaction. The strength of the evidence cited in this paper is surprising in light of the high atomic number on the metal atom side of the reaction equation, 46 for Pd and 22 for Ti. If further confirmed it is clear that some extreme shielding of the coulombic repulsion of the metal atom's high positive charge must be present to allow close enough approach of deuterons to the metal atom nuclei for stripping reactions to occur.