Tumor Biomarker Glycoproteins in the Seminal Plasma of Healthy Human Males Are Endogenous Ligands for DC-SIGN
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DC-SIGN is an immune C-type lectin that is expressed on both immature and mature dendritic cells associated with peripheral and lymphoid tissues in humans. It is a pattern recognition receptor that binds to several pathogens including HIV-1, Ebola virus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Candida albicans, Helicobacter pylori, and Schistosoma mansoni. Evidence is now mounting that DC-SIGN also recognizes endogenous glycoproteins, and that such interactions play a major role in maintaining immune homeostasis in humans and mice. Autoantigens (neoantigens) are produced for the first time in the human testes and other organs of the male urogenital tract under androgenic stimulus during puberty. Such antigens trigger autoimmune orchitis if the immune response is not tightly regulated within this system. Endogenous ligands for DC-SIGN could play a role in modulating such responses.
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2012 January; 11(1): M111.008730