Measuring equivalent circuits
"The equivalent circuit is a familiar tool to power system engineers. Today's large interconnected power systems often are studied as electric networks in which part of the network is a simplified equivalent of the actual system. Such equivalents reduce the number of circuit elements needed to represent a part of the system which is not to be analyzed in detail, but must be accounted for as it affects the remainder. Sometimes it is found that commonly used equivalents do not correctly represent the actual network, and this is a serious problem in those studies where the size of the network compels the use of an equivalent. In this paper it will be shown that an equivalent which takes proper account of transformation ratios will give dependable results. A step-by-step procedure will be described for measuring such an equivalent without disturbing a network analyzer setup."--Page 753.