Historical Trauma, Coping, and Positive Mental Health Among American Indians
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American Indians (AI) have survived numerous historical tragedies resulting in posttraumatic stress, unresolved historical grief, and historical trauma (Brave Heart & DeBruyn, 1998). AIs also face a heightened risk for undergoing traumatic and violent life events compared to other ethnic and racial groups (Bassett, Buchwald, & Manson, 2014). Factors such as heightened levels of enculturation and use of traditional coping methods have been linked to more positive mental and behavioral health outcomes; however, positive psychology research focused on racial/ethnic minorities is limited (Rao & Donaldson, 2015). The present study utilized the Indigenist Stress-Coping Model (ISCM) to examine the relationships between historical trauma, enculturation, and positive mental health outcomes among AIs (Walters, Simoni, & Evans-Campbell, 2002). One-hundred and twenty-one participants completed survey materials. Regression analyses demonstrated that enculturation was not found to buffer the effects of historical trauma on positive mental health; however, moderating effects were found for aspects of traditional spirituality on the relationship between historical loss-associated symptoms and integrated well-being. Results further expand our conceptualization of historical trauma and its impact on AIs. Clinical implications and future directions for research are discussed.
Table of Contents
Introduction and review of the literature -- Manuscript -- References -- Appendix A. Tables -- Appendix B. Indigenist Stress Coping Model (Walters et al., 2002) -- Appendix C. Demographic Questionnaire -- Appendix D. Historical Loss Scale (Whitbeck, Adams, Hoyt, & Chen, 2004a) -- Appendix E. Historical Loss-Associated Symptoms Scale (Whitbeck et al., 2004a) -- Appendix F. American Indian Enculturation Scale (Winderowd et al., 2008) -- Appendix G. Native American Spirituality Scale (Greenfield et al., 2015) -- Appendix H. Mental Health Continuum – Short Form (Keyes, 2009)
Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy)